Carbon, Common Materials, a Key Enabler of New Battery Tech

June 11, 2018

Above, properties of graphene, a form of carbon that may make huge improvements possible in key renewable tech like batteries and Solar cells.

Below, a friend sends news of yet more amazing possibilities for energy storage – as battery tech follows a similar performance curve as computer processor speed and memory, as well as solar energy deployment have seen in recent decades.

New Atlas:

Combining the unique strengths of lithium batteries with crazy-fast charging, carbon ultra-capacitors could save a ton of weight and add significant range and power to electric vehicles, according to Nawa Technologies. Based outside Marseilles, this fascinating French startup is working on a new type of battery it believes could offer some huge advantages in the EV space, among many others.

Nawa Technologies’ core product is a new type of carbon ultra-capacitor with a set of remarkable advantages over typical lithium-ion battery cells.

To start with, as a capacitor, its charge and discharge rates are absolutely spectacular compared with batteries – up to 1,000 times faster. We’re talking about charging an entire car battery in a matter of seconds, maybe three times quicker than filling a tank with fossil fuel.

And since there’s no chemical reaction taking place, merely a physical separation of protons and electrons, super-fast charging doesn’t cause any heat build-up or swelling of the battery. That gives the carbon ultra-capacitor an exceptionally long lifetime, up to a million charge cycles.

supportdarksnow

The ultra-capacitor’s monster discharge rate also offers another advantage over lithium batteries. In high-powered EVs, the slow discharge rate of the batteries often means you need to up battery capacity in order to add performance. The Tesla Model S, for example, wouldn’t be able to activate its Ludicrous speed mode with a smaller battery pack, because the slow discharge rates of the batteries would cause a power bottleneck. That’s absolutely not a problem with an ultra-capacitor; these things discharge fast enough to output enormous power with a very small battery.

It’s also very cheap and simple to manufacture, using a process that Nawa Founder and COO Pascal Boulanger describes to us over the phone as “the same process used to create photovoltaic panels. It’s industry proven, highly efficient and cost effective.”

But these remarkable advantages are not the key driver for Boulanger. He believes the carbon ultra-capacitor’s environmental benefits are its biggest calling card.

“For me, the dream comes from the fact that we’re not using lithium, cobalt, rare earth metals,” says Boulanger. “These materials are polluting, and very complicated to extract from the Earth. We’re moving from a society where we extract oil to put in the car, to the same theme, but extracting metals and minerals to put in electric cars. It’s not good, because we’re destroying our planet.

“Nawa’s ultra-capacitors only use carbon and aluminum. Our carbon comes from natural, sustainable sources. We don’t need to mine. When I created Nawa, that was what I wanted to promote: a real, sustainable way. That’s the dream. Building safer and cleaner batteries.”

Could you run a vehicle completely on Nawa’s carbon technology? Yes, says Nawa CEO Ulrik Grape.

“People looking for small cars that are used mainly for small drives, like around city centers, our technology would be perfect,” Grape says. “You can do 50 to 100 kilometers (31 to 62 mi) on our technology alone, and you can recharge the car in less than 10 or 20 seconds. It’s perfect for a fleet of electric cars for sharing.”

But this ultra-capacitor technology does have drawbacks.

For starters, while power density (the amount of power output per unit of weight) is off the charts, energy density doesn’t compete with lithium. An ultra-capacitor will only hold about 25 percent of the energy per unit of weight that a lithium battery can manage, so a car battery with the same sized ultra-capacitor would have only a quarter the range.

Secondly, capacitors suck at long-term energy storage. Leave your car charged up in your garage, and you could expect to leak around 10-20 percent of your energy out each day.

The Nawa team believes that the full potential of the ultra-capacitor, at least in the EV space, becomes unlocked when it’s combined with a lithium battery.

A hybrid lithium/carbon battery system could offer the best of both worlds – long-range continuous driving and long-term power storage thanks to the lithium unit, plus ultra-fast partial charging and extreme power output thanks to the ultra-capacitor.

This kind of hybrid system has another hidden advantage: regenerative braking would become about 450 percent better at recouping energy. Current re-gen systems are forced to throw away the vast majority of energy generated back through the wheels under braking simply because lithium charges so slowly that there’s nowhere to put it all.

“Most of the energy in regenerative braking is lost as heat, maybe 80 percent,” says Grape. “Perhaps 20 percent is recouped. The electric motors are very efficient at generating that power, but the battery just can’t accept the charge rate. If you combine our technology with the lithium battery, we can accept up to 90 percent of that energy.”

Significant news also from MIT, where Daniel Sadoway and his team have been laboring away on large scale batteries meant to store the really significant amounts of energy that could back up power for a whole city.

Short talk here is from 2017, now there is a new breakthrough in the approach he outlines here.

An advantage again, here, is that the so-called “flow” batteries use fairly common, inexpensive, and non-toxic materials.

MIT News Office:

A type of battery first invented nearly five decades ago could catapult to the forefront of energy storage technologies, thanks to a new finding by researchers at MIT. The battery, based on electrodes made of sodium and nickel chloride and using a new type of metal mesh membrane, could be used for grid-scale installations to make intermittent power sources such as wind and solar capable of delivering reliable baseload electricity.

MIT-Battery-Membranes_0

The findings are being reported today in the journal Nature Energy, by a team led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, postdocs Huayi Yin and Brice Chung, and four others.

Although the basic battery chemistry the team used, based on a liquid sodium electrode material, was first described in 1968, the concept never caught on as a practical approach because of one significant drawback: It required the use of a thin membrane to separate its molten components, and the only known material with the needed properties for that membrane was a brittle and fragile ceramic. These paper-thin membranes made the batteries too easily damaged in real-world operating conditions, so apart from a few specialized industrial applications, the system has never been widely implemented.

But Sadoway and his team took a different approach, realizing that the functions of that membrane could instead be performed by a specially coated metal mesh, a much stronger and more flexible material that could stand up to the rigors of use in industrial-scale storage systems.

“I consider this a breakthrough,” Sadoway says, because for the first time in five decades, this type of battery — whose advantages include cheap, abundant raw materials, very safe operational characteristics, and an ability to go through many charge-discharge cycles without degradation — could finally become practical.

While some companies have continued to make liquid-sodium batteries for specialized uses, “the cost was kept high because of the fragility of the ceramic membranes,” says Sadoway, the John F. Elliott Professor of Materials Chemistry. “Nobody’s really been able to make that process work,” including GE, which spent nearly 10 years working on the technology before abandoning the project.

As Sadoway and his team explored various options for the different components in a molten-metal-based battery, they were surprised by the results of one of their tests using lead compounds. “We opened the cell and found droplets” inside the test chamber, which “would have to have been droplets of molten lead,” he says. But instead of acting as a membrane, as expected, the compound material “was acting as an electrode,” actively taking part in the battery’s electrochemical reaction.

“That really opened our eyes to a completely different technology,” he says. The membrane had performed its role — selectively allowing certain molecules to pass through while blocking others — in an entirely different way, using its electrical properties rather than the typical mechanical sorting based on the sizes of pores in the material.

In the end, after experimenting with various compounds, the team found that an ordinary steel mesh coated with a solution of titanium nitride could perform all the functions of the previously used ceramic membranes, but without the brittleness and fragility. The results could make possible a whole family of inexpensive and durable materials practical for large-scale rechargeable batteries.

The use of the new type of membrane can be applied to a wide variety of molten-electrode battery chemistries, he says, and opens up new avenues for battery design. “The fact that you can build a sodium-sulfur type of battery, or a sodium/nickel-chloride type of battery, without resorting to the use of fragile, brittle ceramic — that changes everything,” he says.

The work could lead to inexpensive batteries large enough to make intermittent, renewable power sources practical for grid-scale storage, and the same underlying technology could have other applications as well, such as for some kinds of metal production, Sadoway says.

Sadoway cautions that such batteries would not be suitable for some major uses, such as cars or phones. Their strong point is in large, fixed installations where cost is paramount, but size and weight are not, such as utility-scale load leveling. In those applications, inexpensive battery technology could potentially enable a much greater percentage of intermittent renewable energy sources to take the place of baseload, always-available power sources, which are now dominated by fossil fuels.

 

 

 

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20 Responses to “Carbon, Common Materials, a Key Enabler of New Battery Tech”

  1. ted knopper Says:

    One should always be open to new developments yet it helps to look at reality instead of the hype. The problem with the current lithium battery is the fluid used is highly flammable, hence the Tesla cars burning up. Damage the battery and it bursts into flame. The same battery tech is what got those phones banned from going on airplanes. Dumping a super cap on top of the battery and shorting it out in an accident would simply make you burn up very fast in almost any accident that caused damage to the battery or cap. There is a battery which uses a non flammable fluid, the problem is nobody wants to use it as they would have to pay royalties to the developer. A battery which uses a molten salt is simply insane in a car as you have a huge problem in an accident unless you do not mind being burned to death by the molten salt, never mind to keep it molten requires a lot of energy so you could not just park your car in the travel lot at the airport and come back in a week, the battery would have cooled off and you would be stuck until it got heated up again. The cap has another problem, there is nothing to keep it from a fast discharge upon any accident, that would dump a hundred or more Kilowatts out in a few milliseconds which would cause arcing and fire just like you get when you short out power lines. Bad ideas for personal transportation even if some of them make sense for power storage for solar or wind power sources. We need power storage to make solar and wind work. Battery storage is not the only idea to do that but is most likely the furthermost along at this time. Other ideas being pushed are pumped air storage, chemical batteries using pumped solutions, centrifugal storage, for large installation, pumped water storage and most likely others I have not mentioned.

    • Abel Adamski Says:

      Super Caps are being used right now (for the past few years actually) powering Transit Buses in China (in conjunction with a smaller Li Batt for to and from depot etc etc.) Range of Super Cap – 5Km, charge time 10 Secs.

      Transit and suburban bus stops are rarely more than 1Km apart, bus pulls up doors open, boom drops and charges bus, doors close and on it’s merry way.

      • kevinboyce Says:

        Yeah, short distances with dedicated charging stops is about the only place where supercaps make sense at all.

        Power out? No! I already have to listen to idiots laying scratch with their ICE cars at the stop sign by my house, and my Bolt gets up to highway speed faster than any of them. Nobody needs Ludicrous mode; I’ll thank the world for not making that kind of power available to 100 times more people.

        Power in? Okay, let’s say you replace half of a Bolt’s 60 kWh pack with a supercap. So now that’s 30 kWh of Li and 7.5 of capacitor, for a total of 37.5 kWh, or a 40% reduction in range. So now I can very rapidly charge that 7.5 kWh and get 37 miles of range. So what, I’m supposed to stop every 35 miles to recharge? Sure, if I’m a city bus. Not so much in a car. Oh, and if you want to charge it in 60 seconds, that’s 450 kW from the charger to the car. Not impossible, but not exactly the kind of thing where you just wire it up to existing utility service.

        And when he starts talking about loss of power in regenerative braking is where my opinion shifts from “too much hype” to “scam alert”. The only time my regen power exceeds 50 kW is during an emergency stop. Typically it’s 20 or maybe 30 kW, which is half the rate of the built-in charger. So no, I don’t lose 90% of the regen power, and neither does anyone else.


      • Very very thank you for such blog. I knew very well about it & will recommend such great blog to others.

    • greenman3610 Says:

      how stupid are you? “same battery tech is what got those phones banned from going on airplanes.”
      that was one phone model. I haven’t noticed anyone having their phones confiscated on flights lately. And when’s the last time your laptop blew up?
      same shallow BS with the rest of your points.
      Do better or be banned.

    • rhymeswithgoalie Says:

      “Damage the battery and it bursts into flame. ”

      Golly, I’m sure glad that gasoline-powered cars never burst into flame.

    • leslie graham Says:

      How may petrol driven cars caught fire in the US last year?
      Around 150,000
      How many Tesla’s caught fire last year.
      Two.
      National Traffic Safety Administration released a report stating that it hasn’t found a “defect trend” that would indicate the electric sedan is unsafe. But that’s not stopping Tesla from upgrading the underbody armor of its cars.
      Are you new to trolling climate threads – just curious as to why you are so pathetic at it.

      • Abel Adamski Says:

        “just curious as to why you are so pathetic at it.”
        For some it is an inate ability or should we say handicap, so be kind to those amongst us who are hjandicapped

  2. Abel Adamski Says:

    For Graphene Super Caps.Commercial Graphene Production at economic prices and sheet size
    https://newswire.iguana2.com/af5f4d73c1a54a33/fgr.asx/6A873661/FGR_Commercial_Graphene_Facility_Commences_Production

    Look up “The Best Battery”, by an Australian Graphite Miner/Research Co. First Graphene
    https://newswire.iguana2.com/af5f4d73c1a54a33/fgr.asx/6A872930/FGR_Strong_Progress_on_BEST_Battery_Development

    Initial plans are for portable and wearable devices (as can be in flexible sheets), but once in operation scale is just manufacturing technology

  3. rhymeswithgoalie Says:

    I’ve always thought that big Li+ batteries for grid storage was a waste. Why use fancy lightweight storage material that is good for tech toys and vehicles in applications where weight or size weren’t critical?

    • Abel Adamski Says:

      Some good tech being developed including along the lines of the Vanadium flow batteries – suitable for Domestic and light commercial use, especially with a SC or Li Battery for Industrial applications that may need short high current bursts

  4. Kiwiiano Says:

    Charge your car battery in seconds? Just don’t stand straddling the charging cable when they turn it on, the current flow would cause a spectacular response to the Earth’s magnetic field that could see the family jewels reduced to a pulp!!


  5. When business controls government, what is that defined as?

    Fascism.

    Fascists always fly together, and usually want absolute total global control of everything and everyone, via war or other means.


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